Gender-Based Violence and its Effect on Mother, Fetus and Newborn Baby: A Systematic Review


  • Sameera Rizvi Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Sana Tariq Department of Research & Development, Tabba Kidney Institute, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Amira M. Ali Department of Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.
  • Tazeen Saeed Ali Department of Nursing, Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan.


Gender-Based violence, GBV, Pregnancy outcome, Neonatal health, Fetal respiratory distress, Contraception, Abortions


Abstract: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health concern resulting in physical, psychological, sexual, and social issues. GBV during pregnancy may results in complicated and grave consequences for mother and unborn child. The prevalamce of GBV was reportedly higher in developing countries, indicating higher maternal and child mortalities. Effect of GBV on pregnancy has been reported to enhance the chances of prolonged labor, obstructed labor and in severe injuries higher incidents of miscarriages and abortions are also been reported. Moreover, fetal respiratory distress, diarrhea, small for gestaional age and Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) have also been reported. This review aims to present a systematic view of genderbased violence and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes and to contribute by filling the existing information gap. Review assessed the effect of GBV during pregnancy on fetal health, reporting infant diarrhea more frequently, along with fever, vomiting, and respiratory distress. The significant association between adverse maternal and fetal outcomes and gender-based violence has been evaluated extensively.




How to Cite

Rizvi S, Tariq S, Ali AM, Ali TS. Gender-Based Violence and its Effect on Mother, Fetus and Newborn Baby: A Systematic Review. Nat J Health Sci [Internet]. 2023Dec.28 [cited 2024Feb.21];8(4):195-202. Available from:



Review Article