Risk Factors Associated with Conversion of Laparoscopic to Open Cholecystectomy
Keywords:Cholelithiasis, Conversion, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Obesity, Surgery, Gallstones disease
Abstract: Background: Gallstones disease is one of the major problem of gastro intestinal tract and surgical removal is usually advised. Surgery is usually laparoscopic but if the dissection is tedious, laparoscopic procedure can be converted into open procedure.
Objective: This study aims to assess the reasons and risk factors for the conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) into open
Materials and Methods: A prospective assessment of medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at ward-2, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre from January 2019 to December 2021 was undertaken to identify indications of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies converted to open cholecystectomy and assess operative time and length of hospital stay of these patients.
Results: A total of 984 elective cholecystectomies were performed in which 85.5% (n=841) were females and 14.5% (n=143) were males. Male to female ratio was 1:5.8 with conversion rate 0.40 % (n=04) and 4.36% (n=43) respectively. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done in 95.22% (n=937) cases while 4.78% (n=47) patients required conversion to open cholecystectomy with major pre-operative risk factors being acute cholecystitis (p<0.001), history of acute cholecystitis (p=0.012), history of acute pancreatitis (p=0.007), history of previous open surgery (p<0.001) and major per-operative risk factors being severe bleeding (p<0.001), dense adhesions (p=0.755), distorted anatomy (p<0.001), visceral damage (p<0.001) and biliary injury(p<0.001).
Conclusion: We have identified some important risk factors for the conversion of surgical approach for acute cholecystitis. However, the open approach should be done by experienced surgeons when necessary. The overall impact of the study is to identify the patients who are the risk of conversion into open preoperatively so that proper arrangement and counseling should be done.