Optimal Gestational Weight Gain Based on Different Body Mass Index and its Relation with Adverse Pregnancy Outcome in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Keywords:Body mass index, Gestational weight gain, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Pregnancy induced hypertension, Cesarean section, Low birth weight, NICU admission
Abstract: Introduction: Maternal and neonatal complications have been linked to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. Controlling of BMI and weight gain during pregnancy is desirable in order to optimize the maternal and perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine gestational weight gain in different BMI groups and its relation with pregnancy outcomes.
Methods: This observational study was performed on 370 reproductive age women with singleton pregnancy from January 2015 to December 2016 at Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi. BMI and total GWG were calculated and patients were followed to see pregnancy outcomes. Data was analysed by using SPSS 21.
Results: Out of 370 participants, 8(2.2%) were underweight, 119(32.2%) were healthy, 126(34.1%) were overweight and 86(23.2%) were obese and 31(8.4%) were very obese. Overweight and obese multiparous women gained weight more than IOM recommendations. Adverse pregnancy outcomes like GDM 124(33.5%), PIH 69(18.6%), Pre-eclampsia 9(2.4%), placental abruption 14(3.8%), cesarean section 214(57.8%), postoperative wound infection 54(14.6%), macrosomia 27(7.3%), low Apgar score 112(30.3%) and NICU admissions 174(47%) were noted in overweight and obese women with excessive GWG. We interestingly, noted adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with upper limit of normal BMI and GWG ranges.
Conclusion: Implementing optimal BMI and GWG helps to avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes. Asians especially Pakistani women need local BMI and GWG recommendations to have better pregnancy outcomes.