Comparative Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths in Satar and Chaudhary Communities of Birtamode Municipality, Jhapa, Nepal
Keywords:Prevalence, Parasitosis, Helminth, Nematode, Cestode
Abstract: Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries like Nepal. Materials and Methods: The different ethnic groups are geographically, socio-economically, culturally, and genetically diverse and their heterogeneity needs explanation to understand the variation in the prevalence of IPIs among them. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of intestinal helminths in Satar and Chaudhary communities of Birtamode Municipality and to identify the risk factors associated with either of them. A total of 220 stool samples, 110 from each community were collected and examined by unstained and stained smear preparation, floatation, and sedimentation technique. A set of questions regarding the risk factors of parasitosis was filled by interviewing each respondent. R-version 1.1.463 was used to perform the chi-square test for statistical analysis of data, and 95% confidence interval and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of infection was found 28.63%. A significant difference was seen in the prevalence of parasites between Satar and Chaudhary communities (p<0.05). The age-wise prevalence revealed a high rate of infection among children, followed by old age and adults, while sex-wise prevalence showed marginally higher infection in males in both communities. Altogether six types of parasites were encountered; A. lumbricoides (13.18%) was the most prevalent parasite. In risk factor analysis, significant associations were seen between parasitic infections and handwashing habits, use of handwashing agent, defecation site preference, and barefoot walking habit in the Satar
community. Similarly, a significant association of parasitic infection with handwashing habits and barefoot walking habits were seen in the Chaudhary community. Conclusion: Hence, a remarkable prevalence of parasitic infection was indicated by the present study. Improvements in personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, provision of sanitary toilets, provision of awareness programs, and preventive measure implementation are important to overcome the parasitic infection in these communities.